Excerpts from: The Capitol, 85th Congress, 2D Session, House Document No. 412

 “This book is aimed at once to enlighten and exalt at least some part of the more than 5,000,000 people from all over the world who annually come to the Capital of the United States. ... Of some 345,000 copies distributed, 40,000 were sold...” –Frank Ikard

Page 3:  This Nation Under God  A Congressman and His Maker

[The Prayer Room:] "Behind (George) Washington a prayer is etched: 'Preserve me, O God, for in thee do I put my trust.' -the 1st verse of the 16th Psalm. ... Mortised into the (stain glassed) window is Holy Writ.  Beside it is a candle with the words from the 105th verse of the 119th Psalm: 'Thy word is a lamp unto my feet and a light unto my path.'  The stained glass window, the reverent elicitation of history, the open massive Bible, the lighting- all give the comparatively small prayer room a hushed and secluded note of withdrawal and tranquility.  Here problems of local, national and world significance may be meditated upon by Members of Congress seeking divine guidance."

   Law Givers Who Advanced Man's March to Freedom  (Pages 74-76)

Hammurabi, the Babylonian King and lawgiver. More than seventeen hundred years before Christ—according to the latest chronology—he gave to his and to mankind, the code of laws that bears his name. Historically one of the first four lawgivers known to civilization, he ruled his people justly.—“that the strong shall not oppress the weak”—and through law gave his people contentment and prosperity.

Moses , the Hebrew lawgiver and prophet, thundered the 10 Commandments from Mount Sinai
more than three thousand years ago. He was the great administrator who created a nation, cementing law with religion, and giving to the ages a tough moral code that is the foundation for the noblest ideas of man on the dignity of the individual.

[Added historical information not a part of this original text:  "The Ran (Rabbi Nissim ben Reuven of Girona, who lived from 1320-1380) stated, 'The Hebrews and Egyptians were involved in a clash of two civilizations: the God who created human beings in His image was pitted against the idol Ra, the sun-god who represented domination and enslavement.  Thus Moses, the man of justice and freedom for all, was locked in a struggle against Pharaoh, the despot who controlled and enslaved an entire society.'" -Judaism, by Rabbi Shlomo Riskin, The International Jerusalem Post 12-28-07 Also, It is written: “Jesus said to them, ‘I tell you the truth, it is not Moses who has given you the bread from heaven, but it is my Father who gives you the true bread from heaven. For the bread of God is he who comes down from heaven and gives life to the world’.   …’I am the bread of life.’  … ‘I am the light of the world. Whoever follows me will never walk in darkness, but will have the light of life.’” John 6:32, 33, 35; 8:12]

Lycurgus, lawgiver of Sparta who reformed its constitution about the seventh or ninth century B.C. He established a more equitable basis for the ownership of property and is said to have enacted laws so sound they remained in force nearly a thousand years.

Solon, Athenian statesman, businessman and legislator, known as one of the Seven Wise Men of Greece, who about 595 B.C. may be said to have pioneered a form of democratic government by cutting down the unlimited powers of the nobility. Citizens were granted juries to act as courts of last instance. Under the great new law code he erected contracts were illegal that bartered a man’s liberty.

Gaius, Roman jurist whose most important work, Institutes, a popular manual of Roman law, was incorporated almost bodily in the widely known Institutes of Justinian. He flourished around the second century of the Christian era giving us what many believe is the first elementary textbook on the law in the modern sense.

Papinian, about 200 A.D., a strict moralist, is regarded among the greatest of the Roman jurists.

Justinian, Roman Emperor, 483—565 A.D., made his contribution as a legislator and a jurist, giving the world the Code of Justinian, compiled by a commission of lawyers he appointed. This Body of Civil Law is said to constitute the nucleus of nearly all modern European systems, and to have influenced the common law of England.

Tribonian, d. 545, was Justinian’s top law officer. Law editor and Director of the compilation of Justinian’s Corpsa Juris Civilis, he gave posterity the benefit of his vast technical knowledge of Roman law.

Maimonides or Moses Ben Maimon
, 1135—1204, rabbi, physician, law-codifier, profoundly influenced non-Jewish as well as Jewish thought, with his monumental work organizing and systematizing Jewish oral law. Widely known also is his Guide For The Perplexed which has been translated into English.

Gregory IX, Pope, 1145—1241, promulgated an impressive compilation of decretals—a collection of decrees—as a standard textbook in canon law.

Innocent III, Pope, 1161—1216, active and diligent as a judge, respected for his judicial impartiality, stands as one of the foremost figures of medieval times.

Simon de Montfort, d. 1265, championed the cause of the nobles and the people against the king—thereby establishing a precedent—and created a place for himself in history by calling the Great Parliament which brought to this assembly representatives from towns and boroughs.

Louis IX, 1214—70, King of France, canonized in 1297.  His is rule was marked by justice and competence and he has been characterized the ideal king of the Middle Ages.

X, 1221—84, Spanish King and patron of learning, is credited with doing much for the Siete Partidas, a compilation of Roman and canon law.

Edward I, 1239—1307, King of England, sometimes called the English Justinian. He compiled the Statutes of Westminster, influenced striking developments in law and espoused constitutional principles.


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